(a) Section 11 of the Indian Railways Act No.24 of 1989 and the Government Buildings Act No. IV of 1899 read in conjunction with Sec.291 of the Cantonments Act No. II of 1924 provide for the right to erect buildings on their own land by Railways without having to obtain sanction of the Municipal or Cantonment authorities in whose area the site is situated. In urban areas, the Urban Development Authority must be consulted and rules framed by them followed. Municipal or Local authorities may, however, be consulted, where appropriate, regarding water connections, sewer lines and sewage disposal and similar matters.
b) The siting of buildings or other structures in the vicinity of tracks inside curves should be avoided. The sites should be carefully selected so as not to interfere with the visibility of drivers of trains or road vehicles at level crossings. As far as possible the siting of buildings or other structures should be at boundary of land so as to avoid encroachment as also to ensure availability of land for future tracks.
c) Multi-storeyed quarters shall only be constructed on consideration of land cost/land scarcity. For construction of independent bungalows, prior approval of General Manager shall be obtained. In areas where bye-laws have been notified by the Local Authorities, not withstanding the fact that the bye-laws are not applicable for the Railway buildings, it would. be in the common interest to adopt such bye-laws as being good recommended practice. Where the provision exists in such bye-laws for fire-fighting arrangements, the provisions indicated in National Building Code may be followed.
(d) In areas where bye-laws have not been notified it will be desirable to adopt the provisions of the National Building Code of India 1983 Part III.
e) When a large number of Type 'I' and 'H' type single storeyed quarters are to be constructed, these should be built at least in 2- unit blocks; subject to provision of adequate lighting and ventilation commensurate with optimum land use.
202 Planning of Railway Staff Colonies
(a) Orientation of buildings:-The chief aim of orientation of buildings is to provide physically and psychologically comfortable living inside the building by creating conditions which suitably and successfully ward off undesirable effects of severe weather to the best possible extent.
From the point of view of lighting and ventilation, the following climatic factors influence the optimum orientation of the building :-
(ii) Prevailing winds
(iii) Relative humidity
In the coastal areas, because of less diurnal variation of temperatures along with high humidity, the emphasis should be on prevailing winds.
In other areas, the emphasis should be on protection from solar radiation.
The best orientation from solar point of view requires that the building as a whole should receive the maximum solar radiation in winter and the minimum in summer.
In important stations and where new colonies are being set up as in the case of new Workshops the services of an architect may be availed of for finalising the layout.
(b) Water supply and drainage:- Adequate water supply and sullage and storm water drains should be provided. The water supply system should be designed on the basis of at least 200 litres/ person/day (which includes 45 litres for flushing requirements) due allowance being made for gardens. Where common hydrants are provided, these may be equipped with suitable anti-waste water taps. For multistoried buildings, necessary static tanks may be provided for fire fighting arrangements in accordance with the regulations laid down.
Where water-borne sewerage ./ exists in the vicinity, open drains and soak-pits should be dispensed with and an adequate underground system provided. For colonies provided with adequate piped water supply with overhead storage facilities and where no sewerage system exists in the vicinity, an underground sewerage system with one or two septic tanks according to the layout of the ground should be provided.
Guidelines for the selection of an appropriate sanitation system are given in Annexure 2.1.
Groups of latrines or urinals should not be located within 15 meters of living quarters, 30 meters of any cook house or foodstall, 45 meters of any well supplying drinking water and should be located away from public buildings adjoining railway colonies.
(c) Dust bins - These should be conveniently located with respect to the quarters and regularly cleared by the conservancy staff. In the case of multistoried buildings garbage chutes may be provided with opening in each floor with arrangements for closing the openings.
(d) Shady trees - Shady trees like Gulmohur, Neem, should be provided along service roads at close intervals. Such trees should be provided along-the periphery of parking areas and in the circulating areas in railway stations. Some ornamental trees like Alstonia, Kachnar, Bottlebrush, Cassia, Silver oak, Mulsari, Plumeria, Ashoka and shrubs like Chandani, Gardinia, Chinese Orange and Jatruca may also be planted. For beautification of circulating areas of stations, service of the Horticulturist may be availed of. Gardens may be maintained in circulating areas through voluntary agencies or business houses on terms and conditions to safeguard the interest and rights of the railways.
(f) Play grounds for children:- An open space at an appropriate place in the colony may be left for entertainment and sports of the employees and their wards.
203 General Design Requirement of Buildings
(a) The plinth level of the building should be carefully fixed based on the level of the land and general drainage features. Plinth level should be adequately higher than road level. Buildings at the time of their construction should be adequately protected against dampness, treatment being governed by the particular type of construction, location, soil and rain-fall.
(b) Where considered necessary, anti-termite treatment should be done at the time of construction.
(c) Floor level of bathrooms should be suitably designed keeping in view the type of sanitary fittings to be accommodated.
(d) Location of sanitary fittings, inspection holes, plumbing and other sanitary installations should be predetermined to avoid disfiguring and subsequent patching of the walls and floors. Floor level should be suitably lowered to prevent water finding its way into the living area.
(e) Mosquito proof shutters should be provided in Type IV and higher type quarters and in the kitchen and toilets of all types of quarters.
(f) The position of conduits for concealed wiring and other service installations should be determined in the initial stage in consultation with Electrical and Signalling and Tele-communication Departments.
(g) Designs of important buildings, like hospitals, offices, station buildings/etc, should be finalised in consultation with an Architect.
(h) The layout of the kitchen in canteens and the serving counters therein, should be such as to make the canteen functional.
(i) No addition/alterations in an existing structure should be carried out without the approval of drawings and designs by the Hqrs. office. Particular care should be exercised to check the adequacy of the existing structure to withstand the loads further proposed to be imposed. No building drawing (including that for additions/alterations) should be approved without the relevant designs being put up to the concerned Engineer along with the Drawings. The designs should invariable include design of foundations.
The general arrangement drawing should have the prior approval of an officers in Hqrs. not lower than the rank of SAG in the Office of the Chief Engineer (Open Line). Further, in Station Buildings and other important structures, no additions/alterations should be carried out without the prior approval of the general arrangement plan by the concerned SAG officer in the office of Chief Engineer (Open Line).
(j) It should be ensured that cross reference of the drawing and the design calculations are endorsed on both of them and record should be maintained with equal care both for the design calculations as well as drawings.
(k) While checking the design, adequate details of physical condition of the existing structure, details of any signs of distress, settlement, etc. as well as any relevant feature having bearing on the integrity and stability of the structure including type of soil should be intimated to the Hqrs.
204 Water Supply to Stations and Staff Quarters.
(a) The source, storage and distribution of water supply should be adequate and all installations maintained in a satisfactory manner.
b) The question of adequacy in regard to the source should be primarily considered before preparing schemes for the expansion of a colony or for new colonies.
Before deciding on a new source of supply or when there is any doubt in regard to portability of water from an existing source, suitable test may be carried out in a reputed Laboratory. Medical Department may be called upon to arrange periodical inspection of existing sources of water supply.
205 Scale of Fitments for Water Supply, Sanitation and Drainage
(a) At stations - as provided in Para 414 and 415 of this Manual.
(b) The requirements for fitments for drinking water drainage and sanitation in the case of buildings other than residences shall be in accordance with Table 2.1 for office buildings and Table 2.2 for factories given below-
This may include adequate number of water-closets of European style, where desired.
TABLE 2.2 FACTORIES
Note 1 - For many trades of a dirty or dangerous character, more extensive provisions are required than provided in item (iv) above.
Note 2 - Crèches, where provided, shall be fitted with water-closets (one for 10 persons or part thereof) and wash basins (one for 15 persons or part thereof) and drinking water tap with draining arrangements (one for every 50 persons or part thereof).
*Some of the water-closets may be of European style, if desired.
In all cases of separate latrines used by males and females, the indication boards should be conspicuously displayed.
206 Plinth Area for Various Types of Quarters - The Plinth area to be adopted for various types of quarters by Central Government departments is indicated in the Ministry of Works and Housing memorandum dated 14.08.1975, (copy of annexure to the memorandum is given in Annexure 2.2).The Railways may adopt their own economical type design for each category of quarters keeping in mind the economics in construction. The designs followed by Local bodies, Housing Boards, etc. will bring out the most economical local designs which could be referred for guidance.
207 Basic amenities in Staff Quarters:
All staff quarters should be provided with the following basic amenities:-
(ii) Individual bath room
(iii) Individual sanitised latrines, wherever individual latrines are not feasible due to space constraints as in the case of back to back quarters, sanitised community latrines should be provided.
(iv) Basic/ventilation arrangements.
The above amenities may be provided on a programme basic wherever these are not available.
208 Type of Flooring, Wall Surface and Colour .of Wood and Steel Work in General -The following standards should be generally observed unless otherwise directed by the Chief Engineer :-
(a) Hospitals and Dispensaries:
(1) Important rooms and bathrooms :
(i) Flooring - Mosaic or terrazzo or non-slippery ceramic tiles
(ii) Wall-surface -Mosaic or Terrazzo dado to 1200 mm in height and distemper or ceramic tiles on walls and distemper to ceiling
(iii) All woodwork and steel work -White Paint and steel work
(2 )Unimportant rooms
(i) Flooring - Cement concrete except for bathrooms and toilets where mosaic is to be provided.
(ii) Wall Surface -Cement dado to 1200mm in height and white wash on sides and ceiling.
(iii) All woodwork and steel work- Painted buff or brown.
(i) Flooring - Mosaic flooring.
(ii) Wall surface -Dado in bathrooms with same material as flooring, or ceramic tiles.
(c) Other than officers' quarters :
(i) Flooring - Cement concrete.
(ii) Wall surface -Dado in bathrooms with same material as flooring. Skirting in other rooms.
(d) Staff canteens:
(1) The kitchen, serving area, dish washing place and dining hall -marble chip flooring or anti-slippery ceramic tile flooring and mosaic or ceramic tiles dado of 1200mm in height on the walls, of light colour.
(2) The kitchen and the dining area should be white washed at close intervals to prevent accumulation of soot etc., and exhaust fans should be provided in the kitchen as per requirements.
(3) In case, the kitchen is provided in a building with high ceiling viz. roof trusses etc. a false ceiling with fire proof material, gypsum board etc., may be provided so that the problem of having to clean dust, cobwebs etc. at places not easily accessible is avoided.
(4) The following areas in the canteen may be provided with suitable finishing e.g. glazed tiles, so that
(a) Serving counters
(b) Dish washing place in the kitchen
(c) About 1.2 metres high dado on the walls above the kitchen counter slab.
(5) The slab counters provided in the kitchen for cooking purposes may be covered with locally available stone properly polished to enable easy cleaning.
209 Use of New Materials: New materials available in market may be used if found suitable from the consideration of cost, contractibility and aesthetic with the approval of concerned SAG Officer.
210 Colours for Timber, Steel-Work and Walls in General - Colours for painting of walls, timber work and steel work of buildings and structures may be as follows or as directed by the Chief Engineer :-
(i) All wood work in offices- Oiled/polished or varnished or painted with approved brand of paints.
(iv) All steel work in station buildings, offices and residential quarters. - Aluminium or dark battleship grey.
(v) All steel work of platform shelters.-Grey, aluminium or red.
(vi) All steel work in - Dark battleship foot over, bridges, grey or red or signal gantries goods aluminium sheds and small workshops Dark battleship grey or aluminium
(vii) AII steel work in powerhouses and large workshops Dark battleship grey or aluminium
(viii) AII steel work inwater tanks and stagings -Dark battleship grey or red or aluminium or black enamel.
(x) Plastered exterior of all buildings- Pale cream
(xi) Plastered interior of all buildings- White/Pale Cream/ Pale Green/Pale Blue
(xii) Buffer stops - Structural part, black; buffer beam red
All exposed steel work should be provided with a primary coat of red lead and appropriate final coats.
C.G.I, sheets should not be painted unless they are in corrosion prone areas.
211 Rest Houses - Officers rest house should be separated from the subordinate rest house. Provision should be made for dormitory accommodation for group 'D' staff.
Special attention should be paid by the Assistant Engineer and staff to the cleanliness and satisfactory upkeep of all Rest Houses.
212 Allotment of Rest House. The Rest Houses are primarily meant for Railway Officers/staff on duty. The allotment of Rest House is regulated in terms of Para 1953 to 1955 of Engineering Code.
(i) The occupation of Rest House by families of railway officers accompanying him is permissible as per the following guidelines:-
(a) Earning or married children or close relatives of the Railway officers when accompanying him (either on duty or on leave) may be permitted to stay in the rest house on payment of charges to be fixed by the Railway in consultation with the FA & CAO. The officer will, however, have to accommodate them in the accommodation allotted to him. Additional accommodation may only be provided at the discretion of controlling officer when not required by other officers at the charges fixed by Railway in consultation with FA & CAO.
(b) Spouse and dependent children and dependents (as permitted in Pass Rules and close relatives) when escorting/ accompanying them may be permitted to occupy the rest house if it is available for short durations not exceeding four or five days and only occasionally. The charges to be recovered from the family will be as for the officer on leave. For the other members the charges are recovered as per (a) above. In this case also no additional accommodation will be provided for the relatives. They will have to be accommodated in the accommodation allotted for.
(c) If an officer occupying a rest house on duty is recalled to the headquarters and his family has to stay in the rest house because they are unable to proceed with the officer either because of non-availability of accommodation in the train or for any other administrative reason such as the officer flying back etc., the family can continue to stay in the rest house free of charge till they are able to proceed separately on a special Pass or till the officer was due to return as per the original schedule, whichever is earlier.
In case, however, the family wants to stay on for a few more days of their own, the charges will have to be paid as at (b) above.
(d) When the officer is staying in a rest house with proper permission at his headquarters station he is being permitted to use it as residence. Therefore, whenever he proceeds on duty the rest house continues to be residence for his family.
(ii) Members of the ZRUCC and DRUCC including Members of Parliament attending meetings of respective Committees or participating in conducted tours organised by the Railways can be provided accommodation in Rest House free of charge.
(iii) Railway Rest House can be allotted to the officers and staff of CRIS on payment of normal charges applicable to railway staff on duty if rest house is not required by railway officers/staff and also the staff of CRIS are solely engaged in specific .assignment in development and implementation of OIS project on production of certificate to this effect from their employer.
(iv) Railway Rest House can be allotted to the officers on transfer as per the following guidelines:-
(a) In case of permanent transfers, in the first instance, occupation of the Rest House should be permitted for ten days only.
(c) These instructions shall not apply in the case of temporary transfers.
(v) The Railway Rest House and Rest Room can be allotted to non-railway Government officers on tour. The Rest House should be booked not earlier than one month in advance only if not required by railway officers. The Rest House should be booked initially for a period of 4 days only. If the officer failed to occupy the Rest House, half rates for the period of booking should be charged unless the room is taken up by some other officer. Following non-Railway government officers can be permitted to occupy railway Rest House on duty:-
(a) Officers of the Posts and Telegraphs Department having free duty passes in the area covered by the (Railway) pass.
(b) Officers of the Special Police Establishment and Government Railway Police working on Railways.
(c) All officers serving under the conciliation Office, Railways and Supervisor Railway Labour.
(d) The officers of the Audit Department (Railway Wing) and Special Railway Magistrates.
(e) The Officers of the Industrial Security Inspection Team of the Intelligence Bureau (Ministry of Home Affairs).
(f) The Commissioners of Departmental Enquiries or other officers of Central Vigilance Commission when on duty in respect of enquiries of Railway Officers.
213 Railway Institute
Railway Institute with its ancillaries should be considered as a club provided and maintained rent-free for the benefit of railway employees. The incidence of cost of maintenance and upkeep of railway institutes as between the Railway administration and the Institutes shall be in accordance with the provisions contained in pares 1937 and 1938 of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt. (1993 Edition).
214 Construction of R.M.S. Buildings in Railway Premises
The R.M.S building and maintenance works will be carried out by the Railways on the following terms and conditions:-
(ii) Rent, depreciation and maintenance charges shall be governed in accordance with Para 1943 of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt (1993 Edition).
In the case of additions and alterations to existing buildings constructed at Railway's cost for the R.M.S. the additions and alterations to them should be carried out at Railway's cost. In case such additions and alterations are substantial or require abnormal heavy repairs of the existing portion of the building, the cost of such repairs/additions / alterations should be taken up as part of the cost of the building for purposes of reckoning its rent.
In the case of lateral extension of RMS buildings to add additional plinth areas, the Railway will construct it as deposit work after ensuring that such extensions would be permissible after taking into consideration the present and future traffic needs of Railways. As regards carrying out vertical extensions to the existing RMS building constructed at the cost of and owned by the Railways, such extensions will be carried out as deposit work at the cost of Postal Department. The ownership of such vertical expansion will vest with the Postal Department. The rent for the land in such cases will be fixed on the following basis in the ratio of area added to the total area available after addition. For example if 100 sq. metre is available in the existing railway buildings and another 50 sq. metre is added by way of vertical expansion as a deposit work, rent for the land will be charged, in the ratio of 50/150 = 1/3 i.e. one third of the rent for land on which the existing building stands.
215 Buildings for Railway Police :
The office and residential buildings for Government Reserve Police shall be dealt in accordance with Para 1957 to 1959 of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt. (1993 Edition).
216 Construction of Quarters Barracks for GRP Personnel by the Railway:
(i) Provision of barracks : Railway will continue to provide barracks for GRP Personnel by including the works in their Works Programme, on need basis, subject to the usual checks as applicable to the other Works Programme proposals.
(ii) Provisions of quarters:
(a) Leasing of Railway land for quarters:
The responsibility of provision quarters to the GRP Personnel primarily rests with the State Governments. However, with a view to encourage State Governments to provide more and more quarters to GRP, Railway land wherever separable, may be leased to them at a confessional rate of 3% per annum of the market value of land (both for covered and open areas) for a period of 30 years for the specific purpose of construction of quarters for GRP. The lease charges for this purpose will, however, be subject to periodical revision after every 10 years based on updating of the land price. Land to be leased should be based on minimum requirement consistent with the need for quarters and should preferably be located on the periphery of the Railway boundary.
(b) Construction of Quarters:
Construction of quarters for GRP on the land so leased is to be done by the State Government out of their own funds. While leasing land, it should be enjoined on State Governments that they construct the quarters within a specified time span failing which the land will revert back to the Railways.
If the State Governments are not prepared to construct the quarters themselves, Railways may take up the construction work on deposit terms. Funds for this purpose will be provided by the State Government concerned in installments equivalent to anticipated outlay during a particular year. The Railway Administration will charge the usual supervision charges as per the extant rules for deposit works.
The quarters will be constructed according to the approved design/plans to be finalised after mutual discussion between the Railway Administration and the State Government concerned in either case, i.e., whether construction is done by State Government on their own or by the Railway Administration on deposit terms.
iii) Ownership/maintenance of quarters:
The ownership of these quarters will vest with the State Government concerned.
The quarters shall be maintained by the Railway and the maintenance charges for. the same will be borne by the State Government concerned.
Railway will, however, have the option to acquire the quarters at any time by payment of the depreciated cost of the building in accordance with the Railway rules, which provide for depreciation at the rate of 1/65 per year at present.
217 Provision of Chicks and Venetian Blinds
Chicks or Venetian blinds as considered appropriate may, if considered necessary, be provided to the following buildings, preferably on the West and South sides:-
b) Rest Houses
c) Running Rooms
d) Offices at Railway headquarters
e) Officer's bungalows and quarters of Senior Class III staff, if of open type.
In exceptional localities where shade temperatures are high or in buildings close to a public thoroughfare, special sanction for provision of chicks or Venetian blinds may be applied for. Provision of chicks or Venetian blinds in quarters will be subject to recovery of hire charges as per provisions of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt.
218 Additions and Alterations to Quarters
a) Additions and alterations to staff quarters only of a temporary nature may be permitted to be done by the occupant under Para 1976 of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt. (1993 Edition) with the prior approval of the Senior Divisional Engineer and on the specific understanding that the occupant will dismantle the same at the time of vacation of the quarters.
b) Additions and alterations of a permanent nature shall not be carried out without competent sanction. When an existing building is to be enlarged or extended, the external architectural features of the old structures should be adhered to as far as possible.
c) Additions and alterations to standard type quarters should not be carried out, without the prior approval of the Chief Engineer.
219 Block Numbering of Buildings and Structures
Every building or structure in a station yard, railway colony, and between stations should be numbered according to such instructions as may be issued by the Chief Engineer so as to facilitate reference in correspondence, the correct number being entered in the Building Register.
220 Building Registers
Building registers in Chief Engineer's Office and Divisional Engineer's Offices shall be maintained up-to-date and show complete details of each structure as per Para 1977 of the Indian Railways Code for Engg. Deptt. (1993 Edition). Replicas of these registers will be maintained in the Accounts Offices. The Senior Divisional Engineers should advise the Accounts Officers of the construction of new structures and alterations or additions to existing structures and the costs thereof, as and when carried out.
221 Transfer of Buildings
a) Each Department is responsible for the allotment of staff quarters under its control, preference being given to essential staff. The transfer of vacant staff quarters from one department to another should not be effected unless approved by the Housing or Quarters Committee.
b) In the case of transfer of staff quarters from one department to another, the department concerned will carry out the transfer in the presence of Section Engineer (Works) by giving due notice to the Assistant Engineer. The Section Engineer (works) shall make out a handing over /taking over memo, listing but the details of deficiencies noticed and get it signed by the occupant. This memo will be forwarded to Divisional Engineer through Assistant Engineer after duly pricing the damages, if any, to enable the department concerned to recover the cost of damage attributable to the occupant.
c) In the case of occupation of quarters by a new occupant, the Section Engineer (works) will be contacted by the allotted with the allotment order for obtaining the key of the quarters. The Section Engineer (Works) will prepare a handing over memo listing out the fittings and deficiencies and get it signed by the occupant. One copy of the Memo will be submitted to the Divisional Engineer through the Assistant Engineer. One copy will be given to the occupant, one page will be earmarked for each residential quarters to record details of occupancy. Signature of the occupants will be obtained on this register, whenever there is a change of occupancy. The Performa for this register in given Annexure 2.3.
d) In the case of new service buildings, the Assistant Engineer will fix a date for handing over of the building for use to the department concerned, who will arrange for their representative to be present for inspection and taking over of the building. The Section Engineer (Works) shall be deputed to represent the Engineering Department for handing over.
e) In the case of buildings constructed by the Construction Department, the open line will take over the same after joint inspection at the level of Assistant Engineers. The Open line Assistant Engineer will allot a number to the building and enter the details of the building in the building register duly intimating all concerned.
222 Responsibilities of Staff Occupying Quarters
a) All staff are under obligation to keep their quarters and compounds in a clean and tidy state and to obey all sanitary rules that are in force.
Before occupying railway quarters, the occupant should satisfy himself of their condition and sign the prescribed form.
b) Cooking except in kitchens or places specially provided is forbidden.
c) The occupant is responsible for notifying the vacation of his Quarters and for giving reasonable notice to the Works, Electrical and telecom staff for inspecting it in his presence. The Works and Electrical Supervisor in-charge should inspect the quarters and submit an estimate of damages attributable to the occupant to enable the department concerned to recover the cost. If there is an interval of time from date of vacation of quarters to next occupation, the Section Engineer (Works) should make necessary arrangements for its safe custody.
It is the responsibility of the Engineering staff or Special staff where appointed to see that the occupants adhere to the instructions laid down. Any breach of instruction should be reported to the occupant's immediate superior.
223 Vacant Railway Buildings
a) As far as possible, no railway quarters should be allowed to remain unoccupied. The Section Engineer (Works) should send a return on buildings lying vacant at the end of every month through the Assistant Engineer to the Divisional Engineer who will take necessary steps in regard to their occupation.
b) A return of vacant buildings should be sent by the Divisional Engineer's Office to the Accounts Department /allotment authority at the end of every month.
a) All buildings shall be systematically inspected by the Section Engineer (Works) and particulars for repairs submitted to the Assistant Engineer. Repairs requiring urgent attention should be carried out expeditiously.
b) The inspection will be recorded in the Inspection Register as per proforma given in Annexure 2.4. One page will be allotted for each building.
c) The insides of staff quarters should be inspected in the presence of or with prior consent of the occupants.
d) The Assistant Engineer should inspect as many buildings as possible particularly those requiring heavy repairs and arrange for all repairs to be carried out in good time.
e) Section Engineer (Works) should inspect all the buildings, water supply installations, sewerage installations and drainage arrangements once a year.
f) All structures (including those carrying advertisement hoardings) situated alongside the running lines, particularly in the suburban sections, should be thoroughly inspected by the Section Engineer (Works)/Junior Engineer (Works) once in 6 months by rotation in order to ensure the integrity of their components with special reference to fitments like corrugated iron sheets which are likely to get loose and be impelled towards the adjacent track by gusts of wind or by the aerodynamic forces generated by the passage of fast trains in their proximity.
g) In monsoon period, repairs or renovation works should not be carried out except pointing and work considered to be urgent.
h) Requisition for repairs and renovation works should specify the dates of previous such works without which work orders should not be issued.
i) Planning of repairs should be based on the inspections carried out as mentioned above and should be completed well in time to enable the repairs being done under the annual zonal contract which commences from 1st July of each year.
225 Monitoring of Maintenance
a) Petty repair books at stations - At each station, a "Petty repair book " shall be maintained as per proforma given in Annexure 2.5. In this, the station Master will enter repairs required to service buildings and staff quarters as brought to his notice. The Section Engineer (Works) should inspect the books frequently and attend to the repairs. Action taken on the Station Master's notes should be briefly recorded in the book itself. Items of days to day maintenance only shall be recorded by the staff in the petty repair books. Any request for major additions or alterations in the buildings shall be addressed to Divisional/Asst. Engineer. The Divisional Engineer and Assistant Engineer should examine and initial the registers during their inspections and issue such instructions as considered necessary.
b) (i) In major stations and colonies where the Section Engineer (Works) is headquartered, a complaint book may be kept in his office wherein the occupants of staff quarters can enter the complaints. This book is to be seen by the Section Engineer (Works) frequently.
(ii) Colony Committees should be formed in big colonies having more than one thousand quarters normally. Committee will be different from Station Improvement Groups and the Housing Committee already working at various stations. On certain stations there may be more than one colony committee. They should be organised in such a way that each committee has well defined functions to look after.
(iii) The following persons shall constitute the Colony Committee.
(i) Assistant Engineer will be the chairman of the Committee
(ii) Assistant Divisional Medical Officer
(iii) Health Inspector
(iv) Section Engineer (Works) in charge of the colony maintenance.
(v) Foreman/chargeman incharge of the electric maintenance
(vi) One representative of each of the two recognised unions
The representatives of the unions will be residents of that colony and their nomination will be done in consultation with the concerned station branch of the union.
Periodicity and agenda for the meetings : This Colony Committee will hold meeting once in every two months by giving 7 days
(i) Upkeep of the colony including cleanliness of quarters, their maintenance, roads, drains, water supply, sanitation, boundary wall, street lighting, etc; priority being accorded in the following order:
-repairs to ensure structural integrity of building
-repairs to leaky roof
-repairs to outside doors & windows
-water supply drainage arrangement
-roads & others
(iii) To arrange disposal of waste from colony;
(iv) Prevention of encroachments by outsiders as well as by railway men;
(v) Prevention/action for eviction of encroachment with the assistance of RPF staff;
(vi) Prevention of cattle nuisance in the colony;
(vii) Subletting of quarters.
d) Colony Committee for maintenance:-Colony Inspection Committees shall be formed for large colonies as specified by the Railway Administration. These shall normally consist of representatives of Engineering, Medical, Operating and Electrical Departments and recognised Trade Unions. The inspection shall be once in three months and Inspection report submitted to the respective branches for attention. The Section Engineer (Works) should attend to the inspection notes pertaining to Engineering items and action taken should be briefly recorded in the Building Inspection Register.
e) Service Improvements Group's inspection of stations:
Service Improvement Groups (SIG) shall be formed at various levels for inspecting all the important stations. Representatives of Engineering, Medical, Operating and Electrical Departments shall be the members of the SIG. The Section Engineer (Works) being a member of this group, has a part to play in this scheme by attending to the following items:
(i) Checking up of the water taps provided for their working condition and water stagnation around the taps as well as on the platform;
(ii) Clearing up of platform walls if defaced by pasting of unauthorised posters;
(iii) Ensuring repairs to platform drains and washable aprons and side drains; expeditiously;
(iv) Maintenance of toilet facilities in Waiting Halls, Waiting Rooms, Retiring Rooms, as well as checking up of availability of water, arresting wastage of water in the taps, and hydrants for carriage filling by plugging leaks in time;
(v) Ensuring periodical painting/ distempering/white washing of the Refreshment Rooms and kitchen, and attending to repairs expeditiously.
226 Periodical Maintenance Works
a) Exterior and interior walls : As far as possible, plastering to exterior of brick masonry should be avoided. No colour washing should be done to the outside of structures built with coursed or uncoursed rubble stone. The schedule of distempering colour washing and whitewashing of buildings will be as indicated in Annexure 2.6.
b) Painting of wood work and steel work: Painting of the interior wood or steel work should normally be done once in 5 to 7 years. Doors, windows and ventilators of kitchens and pantries may be painted once every two years or more frequently at the discretion of the Assistant Engineer. Steel columns of footings when buried in ground should be encased in cement concrete well above ground level. This is to be done in the case of foot over bridges, columns of platform shelters, water tank stagings, etc.
c) Maintenance of (valley gutters, vertical down take pipes of service buildings and platform covers) should be attended before commencement of monsoon to ensure proper drainage.
d) Guidelines for a leak proof flat roof is indicated in Annexure 2.7
227 Standard Measurement Registers for Buildings
a) Standard measurement registers in the format given in the Annexure 2.8 shall be maintained in the offices of the Divisional Engineer, Assistant Engineer and the Section Engineer (Works). Authorised copies of these will be maintained in the Accounts Office for reference and checking of quantities entered in measurement books for annual repair works carried out.
b) The entries made in the registers should be correctly amended when alterations or additions to structures are carried out or when new structures are built. (Annexure 2.9).
c) The block Nos. entered in the standard measurement registers should correctly tally with the corresponding entries in the building registers.
d) The measurement books from which the entries are carried into the standard measurement registers should be securely preserved in the Divisional Engineer's Office.
e) Standard measurement registers may be utilised for the estimating of quantities for periodical white-washing or colour washing and painting as and when required. Particulars of repair works should be carefully scrutinised by the Assistant Engineer before applying for sanction.
f) Date of whitewashing and painting done block wise should be indicated on the building.
228 Periodical Inspection -
a) Every structure on the Section/Sub-division shall be inspected in detail by the Section Engineer (Works)/Assistant Engineer as indicated below:-
b) The Section Engineer (Works) shall record results in ink in the structural steel and timber work inspection register in the form given in Annexure 2.8. and submit the same by the prescribed date to the Assistant Engineer who should scrutinise the entries, issue such orders as deemed necessary and return the Register. Prompt action shall be taken to carry out repairs required.
The Section Engineer (Works) shall accompany the Assistant Engineer on the latter's inspection of structures carried out during the prescribed period.
c) The Assistant Engineer shall record results of his inspection in ink in the
Structural Steel and timber-work inspection register in form given in Annexure 2.8, maintained by Senior Engineer (Works) and ensure expeditious compliance of notes recorded.
d) Structures , the condition of which warrant special attention, should be inspected more frequently.
e) Entries in column "Condition of structure at the time of inspection" should be in the nature of statements. A defect, once mentioned, should not be omitted in future years unless it has been eliminated through repair in which case a note should be made to that effect.
f) When, during inspection of buildings, the Section Engineer (Works) notices the building to be unsafe for occupation he shall forthwith advise the occupant of the fact and also advise the assistant engineer to get a notice issued to the occupant for vacation of the premises and to apprise the controlling officer of the occupant of the premises.
229 Details of Inspection - During inspection, the following points should receive attention :-
a) The condition of paint.
b) Whether any corrosion in steel or decay in timber is taking place.
In the case of steel work connected to masonry such as tie rods of arched buildings and roof trusses, whether any corrosion is apparent near the masonry.
The condition of welds, rivets, bolts and tie rods particularly of water storage tanks; cast iron tank plates should be examined for any cracks.
Whether any deformation of the structure has occurred.
Foundations and bearings with particular reference to tightness of anchor bolts.
The inspecting official shall make a thorough examination of every part of a structure in all respects, using ladders and scaffolding for examining portions beyond reach from the ground. If so considered necessary, the assistance of the Bridge staff may be requisitioned for the purpose.
230 Erection of Steel Work and Roof Trusses
231 Maintenance of Roads:
Maintenance of roads needs careful planning. Though repairs like filling up of pot holes, resurfacing atbroken patches, shall continue to be done as per the condition of the road at site, the tendency to carry out a routine resurfacing just to improve the outward look of the road should be avoided when it is noted that such resurfacing has, in the past, not been durable. Such a situation may be indicative of an inherent weakness in the design of road structure vis-a-vis the vehicular loads plying over it, or it could be due to poor drainage or a weak sub-grade. Therefore, when it is seen that the road resurfacing in general is not standing well, the adequacy of the road structure design vis-a-vis loading and other aspects like drainage, sub-grade strength, etc. need to be carefully analysed. Costs estimated of road reconstruction vis-a-vis repairs through resurfacing etc. taking into account the respective life cycle costs should be gone into before taking up any repairs.
232 Handing over of commissioned assets by Construction Organisation to Open Line:
All structures and assets constructed and commissioned by Construction Organisation as per the sanctioned estimates should be taken over by Open Line within 90 days of commissioning of the said assets.
Joint inspections at the Inspectors' and Officers' level between the Construction and Open Line Organisations should be completed within this period. Any uncompleted work or deficiencies noticed and jointly endorsed for completion/rectification by Construction and Open Line should be listed out (along with anticipated cost wherever the works are to be tackled by Open Line) and duly signed by the officers of the 2 organisations not below the rank of JA Grade. The SAG Officers of Construction and Open Line concerned should jointly decide the time schedule for making good the deficiencies and providing the resources i.e. manpower and material, required to the Open Line by the Construction Organisation. On no account, the taking over of assets by Open Line shall be delayed beyond 90 days of commissioning of the assets.
GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF SANITATION SYSTEM
Extract of Railway Board's letter No.91/lm(l)/20/1 dated 11th July 1991.
RDSO have circulated a monogram titled "Technical Guidelines for disposal of human waste" Vide their letter NO. CBS/BMC/W&S dated 28.2.91. The document deals with the technical aspects of various types of human waste disposal systems.
1.1. Proceeding from this monogram, other literature and the extant instructions, guidelines given in the following paras should be adopted for selecting appropriate sanitation systems.
Following points are relevant while selecting a human waste disposal system:-
2.1 Standard (cistern) flushing systems are meant primarily to transport human waste from the toilet to the treatment plant usually located a few kilometres away, so as to provide a self-cleansing velocity in the sewers. Therefore, this standard flushing system is, appropriate only where underground sewerage system exists. The transported waste is treated in a centralised (off-site) treatment plant in following steps:-
(i) Sedimentation (primary treatment) of the highly diluted waste yielding supernatant and primary sludge.
(ii) Aerobic ('secondary') treatment of the supernatant from sedimentation tank, yielding treated waste water (which is used for irrigation, or let into waste bodies) and secondary sludge.
(iii) The primary and secondary sludges, i.e the concentrated waste is treated by Anaerobic digestion, yielding digested (i.e treated) slurry and biogas.
2.2 Modern septic tank system is an on-site disposal method, which too uses 'standard' flushing. The septic tank acts as sedimentation-cum-digestion tank: anaerobic digestion of the settled sludge occurs in its bottom zone, and the supernatant has to undergo treatment ('secondary') in a soakpit/filter bed. Use of septic tanks without follow-up treatment is not permitted as the effluent from the septic tanks is hazardous from point of view of health and pollution. Since it is usually not possible to provide a soakpit/filter bed in built up urban areas, here septic tank system would not be appropriate.
2.3. The other on-site systems of sanitized toilets are:-
(i) Bio-latrines (improved aqua privies): In these a digester (anaerobic) is provided for similar treatment as used in a sewage treatment plant. Only handflushing is allowed i.e. no tap or flushing system in the toilet.
(ii) Pour flush type: In these a soakpit is provided for treatment of the waste. Here the handflush is allowed.This would not be suitable for built-up urban areas and pit would also require care and maintenance by the users.
2.4 A minimum retention of 30 days is required for anaerobic digestion, while a septic tank provides retention only for 2-7 days and hence the effluent from the septic tank must have its main treatment in a soakpit/filter while effluent from a digester can be discharged directly in a drain system.
2.5 There is a general shortage of water supply in India and in some parts even drinking water is scarce. Therefore, it has to be seen that water is conserved to the maximum extent possible and that it is not polluted; and the waste disposal systems should be designed with these ends in view. This applies to both ground water and surface water. In case of non-residential toilets at stations etc., and community toilets provided with 'standard flushing' arrangements, instead of flushing cisterns of 3 gallons capacity, the use of 'coach' handles should be preferred so that only the required amount of water is used. In case of. urinals, instead automatic flushing cisterns, dripping ferrules may be used to conserve water.
2.6 For providing soakpit /filter bed with septic tanks the water table must be well below their depth and the rain water from surface also should not interfere with their functioning. Hence, these are not usually suitable where water tables are high or where ground slopes are flat.
3. Directions for selecting appropriate type of toilet systems: Based on the above rationale, directions for selecting appropriate toilet system are summarised below:-
c) In case of urinals at stations do not use automatic flushing cisterns dripping ferrules may be used.
4. All toilets on the Railways must be sanitised on top priority programme basis. Thus only flush toilets with under-ground sewerage, flush toilets with septic tank systems (with soakpit/ filter-bed for the septic tank effluent and bio-latrines (also acquaprivy) are the approved sanitised toilet systems for use on the Railways. Hence -
-all 'dry' (service type) toilets must be sanitised.
-all septic tanks, if not provided with prescribed soakpit/filter-bed, they must be provided with these, if possible, or converted into digesters by minimising the flushing so that the same tank can provide clear minimum 30 days retention (in addition to the space for digestion at the bottom).
Annexure to Ministry of works and Housing O.M.No.17020(4) /72-W.2 dt.14.8.75.
REVISED SCALE OF PLINTH AREA
2. Plinth areas proposed above are based on the wall thickness achieved by using the standard brick size 9"x 4.5" x 3"(nominal). When standard size bricks are replaced by modular bricks (20cm x 10cm x 10cm) in course of time the plinth areas specified above will not change. Where wall thickness has to be more for technical reasons, plinth areas may be suitably increased. In places where stone construction is more economical and is normally adopted. The plinth areas may be suitably increased to add for additional thickness of walls. In areas where standard size of brick is 10" increase of plinth area to the extent of 4% in case of type I, II and III quarters and 2.5% in case of type IV and V quarters will be allowed. In areas where local specifications permit use of thinner walls such as 'accra' walling or timber construction, the plinth areas would be reduced suitably.
3(a) Sleeping out balconies shall be provided in regions of hot and dry climate and for construction which is more than two storeyed. In the case of regions, with hot and humid climates, i.e., coastal regions where it is not customary to sleep out during summer, sitting balconies with half of the areas stipulated above, shall be provided in lieu of sleeping out balconies in places other than Bombay and Calcutta (for which reduced standards as indicated at 3(b) will apply). In region of cold climate, viz. hill stations glazed verandah in lieu of sleeping out balconies may be provided with half the areas of sleeping out balconies. Where sleeping out balconies are provided, facility for use of terrace by occupants need not be provided.
(b) The area of sitting out balconies in Bombay and Calcutta will be 1.5 sq. mt (16.15 sq. ft) for Type I, 2.5 sq. mt (26.90 sq ft) for type II 3.5 sq. mt (37.65 sq. ft) for type III 4.5 sq. mt (49 sq. ft) for type IV and 5.50 sq. mt (60 sq. ft) for type V.
(c) Areas of sleeping and sitting out balconies may vary with the type design, depending on architectural and structural considerations. The areas stipulated in this statement are maximum that will be allowed.
(d) In hot and dry regions, sitting out balconies must be provided for two storeyed construction.
4. In the case of type I, II and III quarters, the standard plinth area may be exceeded upto 2% when found necessary on architectural considerations. This is to allow for some flexibility in architectural planning.
5. In type V quarters, car garages will be provided for 75% of the number of units to be constructed. Out of these 1/3rd. of the garages will be partitioned temporarily, so as to provide scooter sheds for remaining 50% of the allotees. Provision in planning and layout should be made for construction of additional garages for cars to an extent of 25% of the number of residential units.
6.In the case of double-storeyed quarters, cycle or scooter sheds shall not be provided. Also no scooter/ cycle sheds will be provided in Bombay and Calcutta.
7.In the case of main buildings, areas for staircase/circulation area is based on a stair width of 3'-6" where bye-laws require more width than this, areas to be provided will be increased suitably, for 4' wide stair, areas for stair shall be 6.5 sq.m.
8.Where local bye-laws so require, additional area for fire escape staircase will be allowed.
9.Sanitary pipe shafts open to sky, wherever provided are not to be included within the standard plinth areas.
10. Area required for services, such as garbage chutes, electric sub-stations, pump room etc. wherever necessary will be allowed over and above the standard plinth areas.
11. In multi-storeyed flats, where lifts are necessary additional areas over and above the standard plinth areas for the different types, will be allowed for the provision of one lifts and lift landing.
12. In the case of construction of four storeyed and above in places other than Bombay and Calcutta in respect of type I and IV, cycle/scooter sheds may be provided separately or one or more quarters on the ground floor may be earmarked for covered parking of cycles and scooters.
Performa for Details of Occupancy
Area of the building Type_______________ No. of Unit_____________
Registered No. Capital cost of each Unit:
Pooled cost of each Unit:
No.of taps outside :
Proforma for Inspection Register
SECTION ENGINEER (WORKS)/................ Section ....................
Separate pages should be allotted for each quarters/service buildings.
PERFORMA FOR PETTY REPAIR BOOK/COMPLAINT BOOK
Note: (1) Polishing mosaic or wooden parquette and red ochre flooring, replacing coloured or white glazed tiles in bath room and lavatory, plastering external and internal surfaces and enamel painting, painting/varnishing wood work and painting steel work will be carried out only on condition basis.
(2) "Building/Structures such as Cinema Houses, Latrines, Canteens, dining Halls-Maintenance of which is governed by the Statutory Acts such as Factories Act, Madras Cinema (Regulations) Act, etc. should be white washed/Colour washed at the intervals as laid down in these Acts."
(3) Colour Washing or White washing may be done to the interior of residential buildings on account of disinfections. When there is a change of tenancy, white washing may be done to the kitchen and bathroom at the discretion of the Assistant Engineer.
1. Water proofing system on the roofs get deteriorated due to weathering effect and may become ineffective due to development of cracks/debonding/ disintegration of water proofing material etc. Stagnation of water due to undulation in roof surface, provision of less no. of drainage pipes or choking of same and improper detailing at junction of parapet and roof etc., are other major contributors in making the roof leaky.
2. BASIC REQUIREMENT OF ARRESTING LEAKAGE OF ROOFS:
2.1 Provision of adequate slope:
2.2 Provision of adequate openings:
Sizes of Rainwater Pipes for Roof Drainage
i) The fillet (angular or concave, not convex) of 75mm should be provided all along the junction of parapet wall with roof.
ii) Coping on top of the parapet wall should also be provided with adequate slope alongwith the provision of drip course on either side.
iii) Water proofing system should be extended from roof to parapet wall for a minimum height of 150 mm with a chase. General arrangements at junction of roof with parapet are given in fig.1.
2.4 Expansion Joints:
Expansion joints in buildings/ other structures may become source of perennial seepage due to failure of expansion joint fillers and sealants. Expansion joint should be treated with suitable non-absorbent, compressible, non-brittle and water tight sealants so that no leakage occurs through joint. Joint fillers should confirm to IS: 3414 -Code of Practice for Design & Installation of Joints in Buildings or IS:1838 (Pt.II or Pt.II)-Specification for Preformed Fillers for Expansion Joint in Concrete Pavement and Structures. Sealing compound should confirm to IS: 1834 - Specification for Hot Applied Sealing Compounds for Joints in Concrete.
2.5 A water proofing system should have the following properties:
a) It should be impermeable or should have very low permeability.
b) It should have strong adhesion with substrata.
c) It should be sufficiently elastic so as to withstand expansion and contraction of substrata due to temperature fluctuations.
d) It should have high resistance to abrasion and cracking.
e) It should be resistant to ultra violet rays.
f) . It should be breathable i.e. permit vapour transmission.
g) Its application should be easy,
h) It should be durable.
3. PREVALENT WATER PROOFING SYSTEM FOR ROOFS:
i) Lime concrete terracing
ii) Mud-Phuska treatment.
iii) Water proofing using polyethylene films.
iv) Water proofing using polymer cementitious slurry coatings.
v) Water proofing using polymer modified bitumen membranes.
vi) Water proofing using bitumen felts.
3.2 Lime Concrete Terracing:
3.2.1 This system consist of laying, ramming & compaction of lime concrete to a desired slope . Lime concrete used in this system is a mixture of hydrated fat lime (conforming to IS 712) pozzolanic material (calcinated clay pozzolana conforming to IS 1344) and concrete aggregate (broken burnt clay bricks conforming to IS: 3068 or natural stone aggregate conforming to IS 383)having maximum size 25mm. This system is suitable for new as well as old roofs.
3.2.2 Application Procedure:
Various steps involved in this system areas under:
i) Preparation of Lime Concrete:- One part of slaked lime and two parts of burnt brick pozzolana, by volume , shall be mixed on a watertight platform. This shall then be sprinkled with required quantity of water and well ground in a mill or using mechanical grinder to obtain lime pozzolana mortar. Coarse aggregate and lime pozzolana mortar, in proportion of 2V2:1 parts by volume, shall be used for preparation of lime concrete. In case of hand mixing, coarse aggregate shall be staked to an even surface on the platform and lime pozzolana mortar shall than be evenly spread over the aggregate and the whole thoroughly mixed in just sufficient quantify of water to obtain concrete of uniform consistency. The mixing shall be done by turning it over and over several times - until all the aggregate are covered with mortar and a concrete of uniform consistency is obtained. In case of machine mixing, two and a half parts by volume of clean saturated surface dry coarse aggregate shall first be fed into the mixer and then one part, by volume, of lime. Pozzolana mortar shall than be added to the mixer and the content mixed well. Mixing shall be continued until there is a uniform distribution of the material. Final adjustment of water, to obtain concrete of required consistency may be made by adding clear water, if necessary, and turning the ingredients in the mixer.
ii) Laying, ramming & compaction of lime concrete:- Before laying of lime concrete, all preparatory work described in IS 3067 i.e. cleaning of roof surface, attention to cracks by filling with cement sand slurry, provision of adequate numbers of opening and fillet at the junction of roof and parapet wall shall be completed. Roof surface should be made rough to develop sufficient bond between lime concrete and base concrete. After cleaning, roof surface shall be painted with hot bitumen 80/100 @ 1.7 kg/m2 blended with coarse sand. Subsequently, laying of lime concrete shall be started from a corner of a roof and proceed diagonally towards centre and other sides considering the slopes required for draining the rain water smoothly. The average thickness of lime concrete shall not be less than 100mm. On flat roof, slope of 1 in 60 shall be given. However, in heavy rainfall area, slope of 1 in 40 is recommended.
After laying it shall be initially rammed with a rammer weighing not more than 2 kg and the finished to the required evenness and slopes. Further consolidation shall be done using wooden 'thapies' with rounded edges. The workmen will sit close together and beat the surface lightly. The beating will normally have to be carried on for at least seven days until the 'thap? makes no impression on the surface and rebounds readily from it when struck. In order to achieve more progress, ramming and compaction of lime concrete can be done mechanically with the help of a tamping machine developed by C.B.R.I., Roorkee.
During compaction the surface shall be sprinkled liberally with lime mortar and small proportion of sugar solution (i.e. solution prepared by mixing, 3 kg of jaggery, 1.5 kg of Bael fruit to 100 litre of water by boiling) or a solution prepared by soaking drynuts of terminalia chebula in water, for obtaining improved water proofing of concrete. On completion of beating, the mortar that comes on the top shall be smoothened with a trowel or float.
iii) Curing:- The lime concrete after compaction shall be cured for a minimum of 10 days or until it hardens by covering with a thin layer of grass or straw which shall be kept wet continuously.
iv) Treatment at junction of roof and parapet:- All along the junction of roof surface with parapet wall, a strip of lime concrete fillet shall be laid and finished smooth. Typical detail of treatment at junction between lime concrete water proofed roof finish and masonry walls are illustrated in the fig. 3.
v) Finish:- In case of accessible roof, one layer of burnt clay flat terracing tiles (according to IS:2690 Part-1 and Part-2) may be laid over a thin layer of lime mortar. However, in the extreme condition where there is considerable expansion and contraction, two layers of tiles may be put on the top of lime pozzolana concrete. These tiles should be joined with non-shrinking impervious cement mortar.
3.2.3 For more details, IS: 3036 -Laying Lime Concrete For Water Proofed Roof Finish, may be referred.
3.3 Mud-Phuska Treatment:
3.3.1 Mud phuska treatment is a common insulating cum water proofing treatment used in comparatively hot dry region i.e. Punjab, U.P. etc., where rainfall is not heavy. This treatment usually consist of the following courses:
i) A layer of hot bitumen 80/100 equivalent.
iii) A layer of 25mm mud plaster consisting of puddled clay mixed with chopped straw 30 to 35 kg per cubic meter of soil.
iv) One or two layer of tile laid on a bed of mud mortar and pointed in 1:3 cement sand mortar.
i) Soil for Mud Phuska: The soil for mud Phuska shall be free from gravel and coarse sand (of particle size greater than 2mm), vegetable matter and fine kankar particles. The soil shall also be free from harmful and efforescent salts. The coarse material shall not exceed 25% by mass. The plasticity index of the soil shall be between 10-15 percent. Generally soil suitable for brick making is suitable for mud-phuska.
ii) Soil for Mud Plaster and Mud Mortar:
iii) Mud Plaster: The mud plaster shall be prepared from soil conforming to above ii). The dry soil shall be reduced to fine powder and mixed with water in a pit, adding wheat straw 6% by mass and cowdung 12% by mass. The mixture shall be allowed to rot for a period of not less than 7 days. During this period, it shall be pugged manually using spades, if necessary, to get a homogeneous mass free from lumps and clods.
The consistency of the mortar shall be adjusted by taking it in a trowel and observing how it slides off the face of trowel. The mortar shall readily slide off, but at the same time shall not be so wet as to part into large drops before falling. Alternatively, slump test may be performed in accordance with the procedure laid down in IS: 1199. The slump should be about 70mm.
iv) Mud Mortar: Mud mortar, used as bedding under brick tile layer, shall be prepared in the same manner as mud plaster but without any addition of fibrous reinforcing material and binding material. The mud mortar may be used immediately without any rotting period.
v) Brick Tiles: These shall conform to the requirements given in IS: 2690 (Part-I) or IS: 2690 (Part-II).
3.3.3 Application Procedure:
Various steps involved in this system are as under:
i) Preparatory Works: Prior to application of treatment, preparatory works like filling of cracks by cement sand slurry, provision of adequate number of drain outlets, provision of 75mm fillet at junction of roof slab with parapet wall, provision of a groove / chase in parapet wall etc. as described in IS: 3067- Code of Practice for General Design Details & Preparatory Works for Damp Proofing and Water Proofing of Buildings, shall be completed.
ii) Cleaning of Roof Surface: The surface of roof and the part of the parapet and gutters, drain mouths, etc. over which the water proofing treatment is to be applied shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign matter, namely fungus and dust etc. by wire brushing and dusting.
iii) Application of Bitumen over Cleaned Roof Surface: After cleaning of roof surface, a coat of hot bitumen (Residual type bitumens 80/100) over the roof surface shall be applied evenly over the entire surface without any gap. Bitumen coat is extended over the vertical surfaces meeting with the slab. Bitumen commonly used is residual type petroleum bitumen of grade 80/100 or hot cut back bitumen. Residual type bitumen is heated to a temp of not less than 165° C and not more than 170° C. The quantity of bitumen to be spread per 10 sqm. of the surface is approx. 17 kg.
iv) Laying of Mud -Phuska:
a) Preparation: The soil shall be stacked in required quantities in about 300mm high stacks over a level ground and the top surface divided into suitable compartments of convenient size by bunding. The estimated quantity of water corresponding to optimum moisture content shall be added about 12 hours before the use and allowed to soak. The stacks of soil shall then be worked up with spades and hands to ensure proper distribution of moisture at the time the soil is to be used.
b) Laying: The Mud-Phuska prepared as above shall be carried to the surface to be covered and laid in loose thickness not greater than 150mm. The surface shall then be brought to the slope of 1 in 40. It shall then be rammed manually with wooden rammers and 'thappies' so as to obtain maximum density. Normally a Mud Phuska layer, laid to a compacted thickness of not less than 100mm, is considered adequate.
The surface shall be allowed to dry for a period of not less than 24 hours. If any cracks appear, these shall be filled with a grout of the binder material.
v) Applying Mud Plaster: After laying the mud phuska, mud plaster shall be laid to a total thickness of not less than 25mm over the surface. The plaster may be applied in a single coat or two coats of 15mm and 10mm.
After the application, the coat of plaster shall be allowed to dry. The surface shall be checked once more for slope and evenness with a straight edge and spirit level and made up wherever necessary by application of the plaster.
vi) Paving with Brick Tiles: After application of mud plaster, the brick tiles shall be laid flat on a thin layer of mud mortar. The tiles shall be laid close to each other and the thickness of joints shall not be less than 6mm and not more than 15mm. It shall be ensured while laying tiles that mud mortar rises vertically in joints to a height of about 15mm. The brick tile shall be allowed to dry for a period of 24 hours before grouting the joint. After drying, the joint shall be grouted with cement sand mortar (1:3). It shall be ensured that the joints are completely filled by mortar. The mortar shall be allowed to set for a minimum of 12 hours before further pointing of the joints which need to be done only if necessary. Before pointing, the grouted joints shall be brushed clean with a soft brush. Typical details for the treatment are given in Fig. 4.
vii) Curing: The surface of finished roof shall be kept wet for a period of not less than 7 days.
3.3.4 For more details IS: 2115-Code of Practice for Flat Roof Finish: Mud- Phuska, may be referred.
3.4 Water proofing using polyethylene film:
3.4.1 It consist of laying of polyethylene film on slopped roof surface. This system is suitable for new as well as old' roofs. This treatment generally consist of application of following courses:
i) A coat of bitumen primer conforming to IS: 3384 applied to the prepared surface at the rate of 0.3 to 0.5 kg/m2.
ii) Application of hot applied bitumen (straight run bitumen conforming to IS: 73) at the rate of 0.70 kg/m2 minimum.
iii) Laying of polyethylene film conforming to IS: 2508 with cold cutback adhesive in overlaps.
iv) Laying of 100 gm brown kraft paper laminated insitu over the film with semi hot layer of straight run bitumen.
v) Application of semi hot applied bitumen at the rate of 0.7 kg/m2 dusted with fine sand.
vi) Laying of finishing layer of tiles or Indian Patent Stones i.e. 1:2:4 cement concrete with 10mm down aggregate or cement concrete.
3.4.2 Application procedure:
i) Provision of slope and completion of preparatory works:- Prior to application of water proofing treatment roof surface shall be provided with a minimum slope of 1 in 100 with cement concrete or cement sand mortar or lime surkhy mortar. After provision of slope all preparatory works like filling up of cracks in roof structures by cement sand slurry, provision of adequate number of drain outlets, provision of 75mm fillet at junction of roof slab with parapet wall., provision of a groove/ chase in parapet wall etc. as described in IS:3067-1988 "shall be completed.
ii) Method of laying:- After completion of preparatory works, a coat of primer shall be applied on the prepared roof surface by brushing and allow it to dry for 6 to 12 hours. Then a coat of hot bitumen shall be spread on the roof surface and allowed to cool to a temperature so that the film may be laid without any damage to it.
The polyethylene film shall be carefully laid and pressed on the bituminous layer. The film shall be pressed down with the help of a gunny cloth so as to prevent any damage to the film. The next length of the polythelene film shall be similarly laid down with proper longitudinal and end overlaps firmly pressed on the bituminous layer.
The joints and overlaps shall be carefully sealed with the help of cutback bitumen applied over the upper surface of lower layer of polyethylene film. Minimum width of lap shall be 10 cm between adjacent films and at the ends. As far as possible for flat roof the film shall be laid at right angles to the direction of flow of water with overlap facing downwards. Width of film should be selected in such a way so that no. of laps are minimum.
On polyethelene film 100 gm brown kraft paper shall be fixed with semi hot layer of straight run bitumen. The technique of fixing kraft paper to polyethelene film is to paint semi hot bitumen on the paper, reverse it and laminate over the film.
Kraft paper shall be coated with semi hot applied bitumen at the rate of 0.7 kg/m2 dusted with fine sand. After finishing roof surface, treatment shall be applied to parapet, gutters and drain mouth.
iii) Treatment at the junction of roof with parapet wall:- Typical details of treatment at junction of roof with parapet wall are shown in Fig.5. Where down water pipes are provided to drain off the rain water, extra piece of polyethylene film shall be provided in the opening covering the edge of the water pipe and covered with cement plaster 1:6.
iv) Surface Finish:- After completion of treatment, roof shall be provided with any one of the following:
a) Cement concrete flooring tiles conforming to IS: 1237;
b) Burnt clay flat terracing tiles conforming to IS: 2690 (Part-1) or IS:2690(Part-2);
c) Indian Patent Stone i.e. 1:2:4 concrete 40mm thick with 10 mm down aggregate.
Typical details for complete treatment for new roofs are shown in Fig. 5. For old roofs, details are shown in Fig. 6.
i) The roof surface should be reasonably smooth so as to avoid puncturing of film. Primer should not be applied on wet surface.
ii) Excessive bitumen should not be used for bonding the film to the prepared surface, which may otherwise result in the film sliding and wrinkling.
iii) Over stretching of the film shall be avoided at the time of laying, which otherwise leads to wrinkles when the film retracts.
iv) The laying of the film should be immediately followed by subsequent operations of covering with bituminous compositions. It is found that if the film is left, exposed, it can lead to softening of bitumen layer underneath causing wrinkles, which may possibly lead to damage. The work should not be carried out at high temperature.
v) The workman should preferably walk barefooted or with canvas shoes to prevent damage to the film.
3.4.4 For more details IS: 7290 Recommendations for Use of Polyethylene Film For Water Proofing of Roofs, may be referred.
3.5 Polymer modified cementitious slurry coating:
3.5.1 Polymer modified cementitious surry coatings are applied over the base concrete. This technique of water proofing is test development in the field of water proofing. Polymer imparts significant improvement in impermeability. Polymer modified cementitious slurry have coefficient of expansion very similar to concrete thereby it does not get cracked due to thermal variation concrete.
Polymer modified cementitious slurry cotings consist of a liquid blend and a dry 2nd. The liquid blend consist of the polymer, liquid additives and clean water. Dry blend consist of locally available Portland cement and aggregates. These blends are mixed in specified ratio generally 2:1 (cement : poilymer) by weight and applied by brush on a prepared clean surface. Generally, two coats are provided. However, manufacturer's commendations should be followed in this regard. To impart more flexibility, it is desirable use some reinforcement like fibre glass cloth sandwitched between two coats. This coating should be covered by screed concrete to protect it against physical damage. This stem can be used over new as well as old roofs.
3.5.2 Application of polymer modified cemenetitious slurry coating :-
Boadly following steps are involved in application of this system.
ii) Preparation of polymer modified cementitious slurry:- Dry blend and liquid blend shall be mix into the desired ratio as per recommendation of supplier. The mix shall be stirred thoroughly, until no bubbles remain in the mix. Any lump found in mix shall be removed.
iii) First coat of polymer modified cementitious slurry shall be applied by brush on wet cleaned surface.
iv) Subsequently, fibre glass cloth shall be laid over first coat of polymer modified cementitious slurry.
v) Second coat of polymer modified cementitious slurry shall be laid over fibre glass cloth.
vi) Polymer modified cementitious brush topping shall be applied over second coat of polymer modified coating.
vii) On brush topping, screed concrete, 1:2:4 admixed with suitable integral water proofing compound 25 to 40mm thick to a min. slope of 1 in 100 with aggregate size down 10mm with maximum water cement ratio 0.45, shall be laid.
Above system may slightly differ from case to case depending upon the instruction of supplier of water proofing system. There is no relevant Indian standard/ other code of practice for this system. Therefore , work should be carried out as per manufacturers'/ suppliers instructions. Users are advised to collect complete literature from manufacturer and study carefully prior to application of treatment. Atypical diagram for this system, is given in Figure 7.
3.5.3 Since, there are no relevant Indian or any other standards available, this system needs to be adopted carefully.
3.6 Water proofing using polymer modified bituminous membrane:
3.6.1 Addition of polymer in bitumen improves its workability characteristics, penetration and softening behavior, tensile and fatigue properties and capacity to bridge movement of cracks/ joints in the substrate. Non-woven fibre glass mat and non-woven polyester mat are generally used as reinforcement to improve their characteristics like lap joint strength, tensile strength and flexibility. Polymer modified bituminous membrane are obtained by sand-wiching non-woven polyester fabrics or fibre glass mat between layers of high quality polymer modified bituminous. These membranes have high softening point, high tensile strength, high tear & puncture resistance, high, joint strength and low water vapour transmission. This system is suitable for new as well as old roofs.
3.6.2 Method of application :- Steps involved in this water proofing system may be as given below:
i) Provision of slope and cleaning of roof surface:- Prior to application of water proofing treatment roof surface should be provided with a minimum slope of 1 in 100 with plain cement concrete. After provision of slope all preparatory works like filling up of cracks by cement sand slurry, provision of adequate number of drain outlets, provision of 75mm fillet at junction of roof slab with parapet wall., provision of a groove/ chase in parapet wall etc. as described in IS:3067 should be completed.
ii)Laying a coat of cold applied bitumen primer @ 0.2 to 0.4 I/sqm on entire roof surface.
iii) Laying 85/25 grade hot blown bitumen @ 1.2kg/sqm all over the surface.
iv) Laying 2.5-3mm thick polymer modified bituminous membrane with non-woven polyester fibre glass mat reinforcement, applied by torch with sealing all the joints.
v) Laying 85/25 grade hot blown bitumen @ 1.2 kg/sqm all over the surface.
vi) Final finish with china mosaic tiles on a 15mm thick grey cement plaster bed.
Method of application may slightly differ depending upon product and manufacturers' recommendations. As there is no relevant IS code of practice for this water proofing system, work should be carried out as per manufacturers recommendations. Users are advised to collect complete literature from manufacturers and study completely prior to application of treatment.
A typical scheme for laying of bitumen membrane is shown in figure 8.
4. MEASURES TO PREVENT LEAKAGE IN NEW CONSTRUCTION:
In new construction, the problem of leakage can be prevented by extending roof beyond supporting walls by 30 cm or so , in order to prevent locations having combined vertical and horizontal joints and by satisfying basic requirement of water proofing of roofs at design & construction stage. Extension of roof will eleminate chances of leakage on supporting walls, as the vertical joint on supporting wall is eliminated. Basic requirement of water proofing of roofs i.e. provision of adequate slope, no. of openings, proper detailing at junction of roof & parapet wall, proper treatment at expansion joint & provision of effective water proofing system have been described in para 2.
5. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE FOR LEAKY ROOFS:
5.1 Before taking any decision regarding remedial measures to be adopted for leaky roofs, it is necessary that the roofs are inspected thoroughly. The inspection should preferably be done during rainy season. Based on the observations, future course of action should be decided depending upon the condition of leakage in the roofs. Minor repairs at isolated locations may may be carried out immediately on dry day and performance of repair should be observed after next rainfall. Major repairs, like complete replacement of water proofing system, may be carried out after rainy season prior to next monsoon.
5.2 Thorough inspection:- The inspection of roof should cover all the essential aspects which may affect water proofing system and may cause leakage in the roofs. Following aspect should be specifically covered:
a) Availability of adequate slopes (minimum 1 in 100)
b) Provision of 75mm fillet at the junction of roof and parapet walls.
c) Provision of adequate number and size of openings.
d) Provision of slope and drip course in copings.
e) Any source of permanent leakage of water like
• over head water storage tanks
f) Undulations/ minor depression in roof surface where water may stagnate.
g) Growth of plants on the roof.
h) Condition of water proofing treatment, especially development of cracks/ debonding etc.
i) Condition of ceiling/ walls below the roof etc.
5.3 Attention to roof leaking at isolated points:
5.3.1 During inspection, if it is observed that the leakage through roof is at isolated location, then such location should be carefully studied. It should be examined whether basic requirement for water proofing has been fulfilled. If basic requirement for a leak proof roof as mentioned in para -2 are not fulfilled, any type of water proofing system will not work satisfactorily. Thus, first of all, action should be taken to ensure that basic requirement of leak proof roof are fulfilled. Leakage at isolated locations may be due to some defects at that particular location. Depending upon the water proofing system adopted on roof, action should be taken to rectify the defect. In case of roofs provided with bitumen felt, there may be debonding or leakage through joints. In that case, defective location have to be identified, cut and removed and new layer of bitumen felt may be provided duly keeping desired overlap length. Similarly, in other bituminous treatment, existing bituminous layer may be removed and fresh layer may be laid. In case of roofs provided with lime terracing with tiles, there may be depression on roof surface or loss of cement mortar between tiles. Such defects may be rectified by fresh pointing/plaster. Preferably pointing should be done with non-shrink polymer modified cement mortar. In case wetness is observed on the wall just below the junction of roof & parapet wall, condition of fillet & drain outlets need to be examined. Broken pipes may be replaced and fillet may be constructed again after dismantling old fillet. Plaster on walls and coping should also be examined and repaired, if necessary.
5.3.2 Course of action for roofs leaking at isolated points:
Following course of action should normally be followed for repairs of roofs leaking at isolated points:
i) Cleaning of roof surface and openings:- First of all, entire roof surface and all the openings should be cleaned so as to ensure effective and un-obstructed flow of rain water through the openings provided on the roofs. Weeds and any other foreign material on roof surface should be removed. The blockage in the openings should be cleared. It should be ensured that openings are functional.
ii) Arresting permanent leakage of water from its sources:-lf continuous leakage of water is observed on roof from any source, like over head water storage tank or leaking water supplying pipe lines etc., the same should be arrested by repairing over head water storage tank/ pipeline.
iii) Identification and attention to locations of stagnated water-Leakage of roof takes place only when water does not drain off quickly and stagnates over the roof surface. Generally, water stagnates over the depression formed in the roof surface. Thus, locations having depression in roof surface should be attended. Subsequently, it should be ensured that there is no location on roofs where water stagnates.
iv) Repair of filet at junction of roof on parapet wall:- Condition of fillet at junction of roofs on parapet wall should be examined and any damage/ defective portion should be repaired.
v) Repair to joints of tiles :- Condition of pointing at joints in between tiles should be examined and wherever mortar has come out, fresh pointing in cement mortar 1:3 should be done. After pointing curing should also be ensured.
vi) Repair to plaster and coping on parapet:- Broken/ decayed plaster on parapet wall should be replaced by fresh plaster. Coping should also be attended along with provision of slope.
vii) After taking above steps, behavior of roof surface should be watched and if leakage still persists, following steps have to be taken:
a) Removal of complete top surface and repair of lime concrete :-
Entire top surface which may be consisting of tiles and bitumen felts etc. should be removed and condition of the layer below it i.e. lime concrete/ mud plaster should be examined. Minor cracks should be sealed with cement sand slurry or bitumen compounds after making 'V groove in case of lime concrete. Defective concrete should be replaced by fresh lime concrete. In case of mud-phuska, minor cracks may be filled up by bituminous compound. Decayed mud plaster and mud phuska should be replaced
b) Provision of adequate slope:- Many of the old roofs may not have adequate slope. For lime concrete terracing, a minimum slope of 1 in 60 is necessary. Therefore, after removal of top surface, slope of existing roof should be examined and if necessary, re-grading of roof surface should be carried out using lime concrete/ cement concrete. Prior to regrading of roof surface, level should be marked on roof and parapet . Subsequently existing lime concrete surface should be made rough. After that re-grading work should be taken up. After re-grading, top surface should be made smooth using cement plaster 1:3 and surface should be cured for 7 days. Similarly, on mud-phuska roofs a slope of 1 in 40 shall be ensured. If necessary, roof surface should be re-graded using mud-phaska and mud plaster. After re-grading, layer of mud-plaster should be allowed to dry before relaying of top surface.
c) Re-laying of top surface:- After completion of re-grading, a layer of burnt clay tiles should be laid. Old tiles may be used if they are in good condition. Tiles should be laid over 20 mm cement mortar 1:3. Tiles should be joined with impervious cement mortar.
5.4 Attention to roofs leaking heavily:
6. STANDARDS & CODES OF RACTICE DEALING WITH WATER ROOFING OF ROOFS:
Following is the list of various IS Codes which deals with water proofing of roofs:
Note: Wherever IS specification has been quoted in this chapter, its latest version should be referred.
THE STRUCTURAL STEEL ANDTIMBER-WORK INSPECTION REGISTER:
Section No_________ Sub-Division____________ Division____________________________